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Planning for change

Designing an evidenced based solution and planning for implementation is an important stage of planning – using a logic model or theory, model, or framework to understand the implementation context including barriers and enablers, strategies for change and who needs to do what differently for success is covered in this phase.

Before you move to planning, it is important you have:
(1) Identified a problem that an evidenced-based approach aims to tackle (i.e. an implementation gap)
(2) Conducted a review of the literature and evidence-base of the intervention(s) you have selected to address the identified problem


When considering your TRIP project, it is not just the impact on you but also the range of stakeholders involved. It is important to identify and understand whether there is an impact on other individuals, teams, or organisations. Identification, selection and management of stakeholders can be tricky but do not underestimate their role. It is helpful to understand what ‘stake’ each stakeholder holds in the system to identify how you might best engage the different individuals, groups or organisations.

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Context Assessment

It is essential to understand the specific environment(s) where you will implement your intervention. Context affects implementation success, so it is important to understand what may unfold when your TRIP project and setting (e.g., team, department, or organisation) converge. It is important to note that context is distinct from the intervention and both will have their own set of characteristics that will need to be considered and managed. Is the specific context ready for this particular intervention? Does the intervention fit within the context? Finally, what are the barriers and enablers to making a change? Understanding this is key to selecting the right implementation strategies

Theories, models and frameworks

Using an implementation theory, model or framework helps ensure a sustainable change can occur by systematically thinking about a TRIP project and ensuring you understand the barriers and enablers to implementation to help guide the best strategies to for implementation. It is one of the key components to what sets TRIP apart from any other improvement or change project. A theory, model or framework allows you to explicitly consider all the different facets of a project - assisting you to understand or explain what influences your TRIP project and helping you to contextualise and evaluate your implementation outcomes.

Webinar 3: Choosing an implementation Theory, Model and Framework

Webinar 4: Choosing an implementation Theory, Model and Framework Dr Elizabeth Lynch

Watch the video [07:01] >

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“I would like to describe and/or guide the process…”

Process models or frameworks seek to describe and guide the TRIP process. Depending on what you select these will help you transfer findings from research to end-user, understand the context where the research will be implemented and used, or help guide the planning and execution of your TRIP project plan.

Knowledge to Action (KTA) Framework

Exploration, Preparation, Implementation, Sustainment (EPIS) Model

Dynamic Sustainability

Practical, Robust Implementation and Sustainability Model (PRISM)

Intervention Mapping (IM)

Active Implementation Frameworks (AIF)

“I would like to understand and explain what influences implementation outcomes…”

Classic theories describe change mechanisms and how changes occur. These theories do not infer HOW to bring about change.

Theory of Reasoned Action/Theory of Planned Behaviour (best suited for interventions at the individual level)

Determinant Frameworks

Determinant frameworks describe what might influence an implementation outcome at an individual, organisational and/or societal level. Context is an integral component of all determinant frameworks.

Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF)

Behaviour Change Wheel (adapted from COM-B)

Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR)

Integrated-Promoting Action on Research Implementation (i-PARIHS)

Implementation Theories

Implementation theories facilitate ‘implementers’ to gain a better understanding and clarification of specific aspects of implementation.

Capability, Opportunity, Motivation and Behaviour Model (COM-B)

Can also be used as an evaluation framework

Normalisation Process Theory (NPT)

Can also be used as an evaluation framework

Organisational Readiness for Change

“I would like to evaluate the implementation…”

Evaluation frameworks provide structure to evaluate the TRIP project. There are specific evaluation frameworks and other theories, models and frameworks that include measurable concepts and constructs (e.g. TDF, COM-B, NPT).

Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance (RE-AIM)


Implementation Outcomes Framework

Other resources

Champion Guide - Planning for change

This manual will provide a guide of how you can facilitate AH-TRIP training to use the AH-TRIP webinars and training materials. This guide will provide you with discussion points, prompts and concepts for you to consider and pose to your department or team to enhance learning opportunities. Read More >   (PDF 186 kB)

Last updated: 23 April 2020