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What works: Falls and physical activity - Stay On Your Feet

Icon showing physical activity information Physical activity has been shown to be the most promising falls prevention strategy, both as a single intervention 71, 124 and as a part of a multi-factorial approach 124. Research shows that specific exercises such as Tai Chi, balance, gait training and strength building group classes or individualised in-home programs reduce falls risk by 12% and the number of falls by 19% 78, 115. These interventions can also increase the time before a person falls for the first time 71. Strength training is the only reliable intervention that improves wasting muscles (sarcopenia) by increasing muscle mass, strength and power 125, but has not been shown in isolation to reduce falls. A physical activity program should be specific for individuals 71, 126 and include exercise that challenges balance at a moderate to high extent 169 with a 'twice weekly program over 25 or more weeks' 169.

Motivating older people to participate in physical activity

Research indicates that it is never too late to start physical activity and gain health benefits 205. Identifying the reasons why people undertake physical activity is important and can be used to promote and encourage people to be active. Studies show that older people participate in physical activity because they:

  • were advised and encouraged by health professionals, specifically a doctor 151, 208
  • felt better overall, were able to cope better and do more 206
  • felt more positive about their social identity
  • there was approval for them to take part from family, friends and doctors 207
  • they know someone else who is attending 208 or the group leader (this is sometimes due to participants being encouraged to bring a friend 152)
  • enjoy the activity (or it "sounds like fun") 208
  • enjoy having a social coffee/tea gathering as part of the activity 208
  • are able to access appropriate and affordable classes held in the morning by public transport 127
  • understand incidental physical activity counts, helping to relieve any guilt felt if extra activity wasn't done 205.

Research 205 recommends three important points to highlight when promoting physical activity among older people:

  • the benefits of incidental physical activity
  • you can accumulate short bouts of moderate intensity physical activity throughout the day to total the recommended thirty minutes
  • it's never too late to benefit from being more physically active.

What works

Who can help older people get active?

  • Health promotion officers
  • Local government
  • Exercise providers (such as exercise physiologists, physiotherapists, therapy assistants and fitness providers)

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Screening tools

Research on falls and physical activity

Resources related to physical activity and falls

To find out more about risk factors

For more in-depth information about falls risk factors, risk awareness, risk screening and assessment methods, refer to the Queensland Stay On Your Feet® Community Good Practice Guidelines.

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Last updated: 17 June 2022