Skip links and keyboard navigation

Stay On Your Feet® - Haddon's countermeasures


Haddon developed 10 countermeasures for general injury prevention. These measures focus on how to control, modify and interrupt energy causing injury to the host (person) [16, 46].

This approach has helped to build understanding of the origins of injury problems and to identify multiple countermeasures to address these problems [44].

Haddon's Countermeasures have contributed to the shift away from education as the principal method of injury prevention toward also including modifying the environments in which they occur and developing a multi-strategic approach which can be applied to falls prevention [44].

These countermeasures are also useful when considering developing falls prevention for older people. The following table is an example of Haddon's Countermeasures as applied to falls prevention in older people.





Prevent the creation of the hazard

Bathroom design to eliminate hobs in showers, double handrails on all stairs, better design of housing and public spaces


Reduce the amount of the hazard

Designing homes, public spaces and buildings with more ramps and easier access, fewer stairs and steps


Prevent the release of a hazard that already exists

Non-slip flooring


Modify the rate or spatial distribution of the hazard from its source  Better urban design and house planning, more appropriate footwear


Separate, by time or space, the hazard from that which can be protected 

Use medication organisers for dispensing medications


Separate the hazard and what is to be protected by a material barrier 

Proper use of good quality hip protectors


Modify relevant basic qualities of the hazard 

Applying contrast strips to all stairs, steps and changes in levels


Make what is to be protected more resistant to damage from the hazard  

Encouragement of physical activity, improving balance, strength and bone strength, use of calcium and vitamin D supplements, wearing of hip protectors


Move rapidly to detect and evaluate the damage that has occurred and counter its continuation and extension

Use of personal alarms and the provision of efficient emergency services, use of a home safety checklist


Stabilise, repair and rehabilitate the damage or injured person   Develop rehabilitation plans integrated across the continuum of care at an early stage of treatment


Go to Toptop of page

Last updated: 3 October 2013